Recommendation Three:
Provide opportunities for teachers to assume responsibility for their own PD through formal and informal means.


Role Group Strategies:

Redefine teacher renewal requirements, mandating participation in job-embedded learning opportunities that target student needs.

Teacher Collaboration Supports Instructional Change
The North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.  (2003, Summer/Fall)
This guide from NCREL outlines strategies for adopting a collaborative approach to professional development.  Several different models of collaboration are introduced, real-life examples are shared, and practical observation tools are included.

Career-Long Teacher Development:  Policies that Make Sense
McRobbie, J.  (2000). Knowledge Brief.
This brief highlights the research of Linda Darling-Hammond, professor of education at Standford University, which shows the importance of identifying teaching standards and using these standards as guides for policies pertaining to different stages of teacher development. The author examines the connection between teacher development and student achievment and recommends policies for successful teacher recruitment, preparation, induction, and professional development.

Education Program:  Professional Development
National Conference of State Legislatures
This research brief examines the nature of professional development planning in the United States. It begins with an overview of traditional approaches to professional development and then details current trends in the field.  It then goes on to answer the question, “Whose Responsibility is Quality Professional Development,” by examining the roles of universities, state Departments of Education, local schools and districts, the federal government play in providing professional development.

How Teachers Change: A Study of Professional Development in Adult Education
Smith, C., Hofer, J., Gillespe, M., Solomon, M., and Rowe, K. (2003, November).
National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy.
This research report from the Harvard Graduate School of Education examines the impact of three different professional development models (multi-session workshop, mentor teacher group, practitioner research group) on teachers. Findings report on how teacher changed and factors effecting that change. On the basis of the findings, the authors give recommendations for program directors and states, professional developers, and teachers.

Learner-Centered Professional Development
Hawley, W.D., and Valli, L.  (2000, August). Phi Delta Kappa Research Bulletin, 27.
This brief from Phi Delta Kappa outlines nine basic principles of learner-centered professional development, which provide a guide for schools and districts in the development, implementation, and assessment of these new techniques to increase teacher learning.

Redesigning Professional Development:  Critical Friends
Bambino, D.  (2002, March). Educational Leadership, 59(6), 25-27.
Because of their shared experiences, teachers can often provide the most effective instructional support to their colleagues.  One model for this type of collaboration is the Critical Friends Group.  This article introduces the concept and benefits of Critical Friends groups and tells the stories of three schools that have implemented Critical Friends groups with great success.

What is Action Research?
Sagor, R.  (2000). 
Guiding School Improvement with Action Research.
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
This chapter from the book Guiding School Improvement with Action Research by Richard Sagor introduces the concept of and processes involved in action research.  He discusses the impact action research has on building reflective practitioners, achieving school-wide priorities, and building professional cultures and outlines a seven-step process common to any action research project.

Support and provide funding for teachers to pursue National Board Certification.

Virginia School Sees Board-Certified Teachers As Key to Turnaround
Archer, J.  (2001, May 30).Education Week.
This article describes how National Board Certified Teachers in one Virginia school are taking on leadership roles by providing professional training for their colleagues. The school aims to become a model of how National Board Certified Teachers can help an entire school improve student learning.

Beginning the Journey toward National Board Certification
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (2003, August 26).
This guide from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards describes the certificates, standards, and steps involved in the process of National Board Certification.

NBPTS:  Building better teachers
Starr, L.  (2004, April). Education World.
This Education World interview with Joseph A. Aguerrebere Jr., President of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, outlines the process of board certification, as well as the benefits for teachers and students.  It is a brief and informative look at the potential that board certification has for changing teaching and learning in America.
Supporting National Board Certification:  School Board Members
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
This article from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards introduces Board Certification to school board members, detailing the advantages of the program and ways that it can be supported from the policymaker’s position.  It includes a list of incentives being offered to teachers pursuing Board Certification at the state and local level nationwide and a downloadable brochure entitled, “A Distinction that Matters:  What School Board Members Should Know about National Board Certification.”

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