Recommendation Three:
Ensure the formal evaluation system is based on student learning and professional development that enhances teachers' knowledge and skills. An informal process of continued feedback and recognition for teacher performance should accompany the formal evaluation process.

 

Role Group Strategies

Principals
Create structured summative evaluation procedures designed to provide specific feedback and guidance to teachers.

  Educator Quality: Summative Teacher Evaluation
Southeast Regional Vision for Education
http://www.serve.org/EdQuality/Educator/summative.php
This webpage describes SERVE's model of summative evaluation. It explains the types of data considered in such an evaluation and provides an assessment matrix based on the INTASC standards and the core propositions of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.

Sample Teacher Evaluation
Jarrell, C.  (2000). The Principal’s Office.
http://urbanschools.osu.edu/principl/toolkit8.htm
This website provides a sample of a quality evaluation that could be provided by an administrator to a teacher struggling with student engagement.  Its purpose is to help administrators see the types of feedback that are productive and likely to result in real instructional change.

Principals
Make evaluation an ongoing component of school culture.  Develop the informal evaluation capacity of teachers by encouraging peer observation and coaching.

Education Update:  New Goals for Teacher Evaluation
Mann, L.  (1999, March).  Education Update, 41(2).
http://www.ascd.org/publications/ed_update/199903/mann.html
This article outlines a process of teacher evaluation known as Collaborative Peer Review and profiles its implementation in California’s Vine Hill Elementary School.  Comprised of team evaluations and observations completed by teachers, this process is more meaningful for teachers because of its connection to actual practice.  The article also includes a description of teacher portfolios as a tool for evaluation and teacher observations.

Teacher Coaching:  A Tool for Retention
Griffin, N.C., Wohlstetter, P., and Bharadwaja, L.C.  (2001, January). The School Administrator
http://www.aasa.org/publications/sa/2001_01/griffin.htm
This article from the American Association of School Administrators describes a decentralized model of teacher coaching being used in several Los Angeles schools.  This model, known as DELTA, provides new teachers with one-on-one coaching from an experienced teacher and a personalized support plan that emphasizes skill development rather than evaluation.

Their Key to Survival:  Each Other
Gingold, H.  (2004, June). Classroom Leadership, 7(9). 
http://makeashorterlink.com/?U1263262B
This article from the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development describes the work of four teachers in Liverpool, N.Y. who created a “collaborative teacher network” designed to support one another throughout the school year.  The four teachers worked as a team, planning lessons and instruction, evaluating the results of their teaching, and refining their professional practice.  They set aside time each week to meet with one another, and kept in regular contact via email and phone calls.  As a result, their teaching improved and they each developed skills required of reflective practitioners.

Teachers Observing Teachers:  A Professional Development Tool for Every School
Israel, M.  (2003, February 4). Education World
http://www.educationworld.com/a_admin/admin/admin297.shtml
This article explains the benefits of having teachers observe other teachers, not to evaluate performance, but to provide professional development and encourage growth. 

Coaching:  A Strategy for Developing Instructional Capacity
Neufeld, B. and Roper, D.  (2003, June). Annenberg Institute for School Reform
http://www.annenberginstitute.org/images/Coaching.pdf
This report provides a guide through the process of instructional coaching. The authors explain what coaches do, how they are prepared, important factors and challenges in implementation, and the benefits and expected outcomes of coaching programs.

School Based Coaching – A Lit Review
Green, Terry. (2004). National Staff Development Council
http://www.nsdc.org/library/schoolbasedlitreview.pdf
This document presents a review of literature supporting school-based staff developers or coaches. The author provides detailed definitions of key terms and then discusses research pertaining to a variety of coaching models. The publication also includes a list of practical tools for use by schools and districts.

Principals
Encourage and support teachers who pursue certification from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.

Teacher Diary:  On the Road to National Certification
Starr, L.  (2003, August). Education World.
http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/diary_2003/teacherdiary.shtml
This website connects to five diaries written by teachers working through the process of Board Certification in 2003.  Accompanied by an overview of the process of Board Certification, these diaries allow readers to understand the changes that teachers working for certification undergo and the type of reflection that the process encourages.

Virginia School Sees Board-Certified Teachers As Key to Turnaround
Archer, J.  (2001, May 30). Education Week.
http://www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=38leadboard.h20&keywords=Fairfax
This article describes how National Board Certified Teachers in one Virginia school are taking on leadership roles by providing professional training for their colleagues.  The school aims to become a model of how National Board Certified Teachers can help an entire school improve student learning.

Beginning the Journey toward National Board Certification
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (2003, August 26).
http://www.nbpts.org/candidates/guide/
This guide from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards describes the certificates, standards, and steps involved in the process of National Board Certification.

Better Assessment for Better Teaching
Castor, B.  (2002, December 11). Education Week
http://www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=15castor.h22&
keywords=national%20board%20certification
This article from Education Week examines many of the weaknesses of standard teacher evaluation systems and describes the benefits of encouraging teachers to earn certification from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards as a method of improving teaching quality and student learning.

NBPTS:  Building better teachers
Starr, L.  (2004, April). Education World.
http://www.educationworld.com/a_issues/chat/chat100.shtml
This Education World interview with Joseph A. Aguerrebere Jr., President of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, outlines the process of board certification, as well as the benefits for teachers and students.  It is a brief and informative look at the potential that board certification has for changing teaching and learning in America.

Supporting National Board Certification:  Principals
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
http://www.nbpts.org/iam/principal.cfm
This webpage provides a comprehensive set of resources that principals can use to encourage teachers to pursue National Board Certification.  It includes brochures detailing what principals should know about Board Certification, specific steps that principals can take to encourage teachers, contact information for principals that have successfully supported teachers pursuing certification, lists of the benefits of having NBCT’s on staff, and links to incentives offered at the state and local level for teachers pursuing certification.

Principals
Engage all teachers in the process of personal objective setting.  Ensure that teacher growth objectives are based on recognized standards of professional practice, and encourage teachers to document growth through the development of professional portfolios.

Portfolios Help Teachers Reflect on What Makes Good Teaching
Delisio, E.  (2000, November 21). Education World.
http://www.educationworld.com/a_admin/admin/admin201.shtml
Many states are moving to a portfolio system of evaluation for new teachers, which are believed to give schools a more accurate picture of a teacher’s strengths and weaknesses and to help teachers learn to reflect on their practice.  This article outlines Connecticut’s portfolio program, identified as one of the nation’s most comprehensive, and includes interviews with teachers who have worked through the process and those who have scored portfolios.

Professional Development Dossier Field Test Materials
New Mexico Public Education Department (2004).
http://www.teachnm.org/prof_dev_opportunities/dossier_pdd.htm
In setting up its new 3-Tiered Licensure System, New Mexico has created a system of teacher evaluation known as the Professional Development Dossier.  Teachers hoping to advance to either the professional or master teacher levels have to create a dossier that outlines their work in three areas:  Instruction, Student Learning and Professional Learning.  This site guides teachers through the process of creating a dossier and would be of value to any administrator or community looking to improve their system of teacher evaluation. 

Professional Evaluation:  Professional Growth Plans Offer Alternative to Teacher Checklists
Barkley, S.G., and Cohn, R. (1999, September). American Association of School Administrators
http://www.aasa.org/publications/sa/1999_09/foc_barkley.htm
Traditionally, teacher evaluation has consisted of one or two brief classroom observations per year, which do little to increase a teacher’s ability as a skilled practitioner.  This article examines an innovative approach to teacher evaluation used in Bethpage, NY which allows experienced teachers to select from four alternative evaluation models:  peer coaching teams, action research, personal growth plans, or portfolios.

Teacher Objective Setting Manuals
Denver Public School System. (2003).
http://www.dpsteacherobjectives.org/DPS_HandbooksToolkit.html
The Denver Public School System adopted a revolutionary teacher evaluation system that provides teachers with the opportunity to increase their pay through documented success in the classroom and by participating in high quality professional development.  This webpage connects to elementary and secondary “Teacher Objective Setting” manuals used in the Denver Public Schools.  Defining the process of teacher objective setting, these documents provide descriptions of high-quality objectives, checklists and worksheets for developing objectives, and rubrics for evaluation.  These practical tools would be valuable to any administrator attempting to focus individual teacher growth on measurable and professional objectives.

Teacher Evaluation:  Using Mathematics and Science Teaching Standards to Assess Teachers
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.  (1999, Fall
http://www.nwrel.org/msec/images/resources/pdf/fall1999.pdf
This tool walks teachers and school leaders through the process of creating teacher evaluation systems for mathematics and science instruction that are focused on specific standards.  It provides guiding questions, evaluation strategies, and profiles the efforts of one school district in Oregon to create standards-based teacher evaluation..

Core Standards for Teachers in North Carolina
The North Carolina Professional Teaching Standards Commission.  (1999).
http://www.ncptsc.org/EveryTeacher.htm
The state of North Carolina, working with administrators, policymakers, teachers and parents, developed a set of core standards for professional teaching practice based on the work of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards and the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium.  This website describes the six standards that should be used by schools and districts to guide teacher evaluation and professional development.

INTASC Standards Development
Council of Chief State School Officers
http://www.ccsso.org/projects/Interstate_New_Teacher_Assess
ment_and_Support_Consortium/Projects/Standards_Development/
The Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium was established in the early 1990’s by the Council of Chief State School Officers to help define standards of professional teaching practice.  This website displays the standards defined by INTASC for teachers in nine different areas of education.  These standards provide a foundational understanding of what good teachers should know and be able to do.

Standards and Teacher Evaluation
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.  (2002, January).
http://www.ascd.org/publications/ed_update/200201/14.html
This article discusses the importance of linking teacher evaluation to school and district wide goals and of holding teachers accountable for their performance through meaningful evaluation.

Principals
Create a climate of continuous inquiry and informal evaluation of teaching practice by encouraging teachers to engage in action research as individuals or as members of Critical Friends groups.

Themes in Education:  Action Research
Ferrance, E.  (2000). Themes in Research. Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory.
http://www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/themes_ed/act_research.pdf
This booklet introduces the concept of action research, a process of careful reflection on practice that encourages collaboration and allows teachers to address issues that are pertinent to their settings.  It provides an overview of the history of action research, an explanation of a process for completing it, stories from two teachers who have completed action research, and links to additional action research resources.

Action Research Tools and Resources
The Teacher Leaders Network 
http://www.teacherleaders.org/Resources/ARgroup/ARresources.html
The members of the Teacher Leaders Network, a major initiative of the Southeast Center for Teaching Quality, recently examined the process and potential of action research as a school improvement tool.  This web page features an extensive list of action research resources.  Included are articles related to action research, sample action research projects, and reviews of books that are designed to introduce educators to the process of action research.

What is Action Research?
Sagor, R.  (2000). 
Guiding School Improvement with Action Research. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
http://www.ascd.org/portal/site/ascd/template.chapter/
menuitem.b71d101a2f7c208cdeb3ffdb62108a0c/?chapter
MgmtId=74edb2cc2fcaff00VgnVCM1000003d01a8c0RCRD

This chapter from the book Guiding School Improvement with Action Research by Richard Sagor introduces the concept of and processes involved in action research.  He discusses the impact action research has on building reflective practitioners, achieving school-wide priorities, and building professional cultures and outlines a seven-step process common to any action research project.

Redesigning Professional Development:  Critical Friends
Bambino, D.  (2002, March). Educational Leadership, 59(6), 25-27. 
http://www.nsrfharmony.org/gene/Bambino_2002.pdf
Because of their shared experiences, teachers can often provide the most effective instructional support to their colleagues.  One model for this type of collaboration is the Critical Friends Group.  This article introduces the concept and benefits of Critical Friends groups and tells the stories of three schools that have implemented Critical Friends groups with great success.

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