Recommendation Five:
Teachers should have opportunities not only to advance in teaching, but also to explore and pursue the principalship.


Role Group Strategies

District Office
Create leadership roles for teachers at the district and school level.  Demonstrate a clear, district-wide vision for teacher leadership.

Leadership Matters:  Building Leadership Capacity
Barkley, S., Bottoms, G., Feagin, C.H., and Clark, S.  (2001).
This guide outlines practical strategies for building leadership capacity in schools that pertain to administrators, teachers, students, parents, and the community.  It also includes a description of the importance of establishing a shared vision and a checklist that can be used to evaluate the supports that a school has in place to encourage risk-taking by teachers and administrators.

Redefining the Teacher as Leader
Usdan, M., McCloud, B., and Podmostko, M. (2001). Institute for Educational Leadership.
This report examines the potential power in enabling and encouraging teacher leadership.  It discusses roadblocks to teacher leadership, shares promising practices from districts around the country, and provides a list of “Suggested Questions” that communities can use to start discussions related to teacher leadership within their districts.

My Mentor, Myself
Kellaher, A., and Maher, J.  (2003, Fall). Journal of Staff Development, 24(4).
It is critical that schools and districts develop effective mentor programs to provide support to teachers new to the profession.  Monitoring the effectiveness of mentor programs is often difficult.  In most programs, mentors are classroom teachers who take on protégés with little additional time or salary stipend.  As a result, the quality of the mentoring experience can be questionable. This article outlines the efforts of the Prince George’s County Public Schools to provide mentors to their new teachers.  Mentors are experienced teachers who serve as full time coaches for a cohort of 10-15 new teachers.  Mentors provide support through model teaching, assisting with planning, and providing advice.  Mentors meet regularly with one another and with their protégés, focusing on issues of immediate concern.  This program could be adapted by any county looking to provide alternate career paths for experienced teachers.

Coaching Moves Beyond the Gym:  Successful Site-Based Coaching Offers Lessons
Galm, R., and Penny, G.S. (2004, Spring). Journal of Staff Development, 25(2).
This article from the Journal of Staff Development outlines the growing practice of using teacher-leaders within a building to provide on-going professional development and support to teachers and highlights the benefits of coaching on student achievement.  A description of five keys to developing quality coaching programs provides communities with a starting point for establishing their own site-based professional development programs.

‘Making Our Own Road:’ The Emergence of School-Based Staff Developers in America’s Public Schools
Richard, A.  (2003, May). The Edna McConnell Clark Foundation
School-based staff developers are becoming increasingly common in America’s public schools.  These professionals, often former teachers looking for an opportunity to advance within teaching, are charged with serving as instructional leaders within their buildings.  This guide from the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation outlines the role of school-based staff developers.  It provides an overview of the need for such positions, a description of the kinds of people filling school-based staff development jobs, several suggestions about the types of roles that school-based staff developers can fill within a school, and an examination of the benefits of school-based staff development programs.

Supporting New Teachers During Their First Years of Teaching
Moir, E.  (2000, October 1). Edutopia: Success stories for learning in the digital age.
This article highlights the Santa Cruz New Teacher Project, a revolutionary approach to the mentoring and induction of new teachers that has had significant success at decreasing the amount of teacher attrition in counties that have adopted the model.  One significant feature of the Santa Cruz model is the establishment of a cadre of mentor teachers who serve 2 year stints as guides for 14 beginning educators.  A nice alternative to leaving the classroom, the Santa Cruz model could provide teachers with an opportunity to advance within the teaching profession.

District Office
Understand, support, and advocate for school restructuring models such as the Teacher Advancement Program, the Denver Professional Compensation Plan, the Douglas County (CO) Outstanding Teacher Program, the New Mexico Three-Tiered Licensure Program  and the Rochester (NY) Career in Teaching Program that create opportunities for advancement within the teaching profession.

District Profile:  A Commitment to Craft, Rochester (N.Y.) City School District Career in Teaching Program
Scarpa, S. (n.d.)  District Administration Magazine.
The Rochester City School District established a Career in Teaching Program over 16 years ago with the support of the Rochester Teachers’ Association.  This comprehensive overview of the program explains the mentoring and peer review components of the program, as well as the levels that have been created within the teaching profession in Rochester..

Outstanding Teacher Program
Douglas County School System

The Douglas County School System, just outside of Denver, Colorado, was one of the first school systems in America to adopt a pay for performance plan in the recent wave of school reform.  This website outlines the pay for performance plan and describes the district's Outstanding Teacher Program, in which teachers create portfolios documenting their accomplishments in the classroom.  The detailed descriptions of these portfolios provide schools and communities with adaptable tools to use to improve their own teacher evaluation systems.

Assessment Criteria Benchmarks
New Mexico Public Education Department.  (2003).
Many states are working to develop plans that allow for teachers to accept additional responsibility and be rewarded with increased pay while remaining in the classroom.  New Mexico has instituted a program known as the 3-Tiered Licensure System that allows for teachers to advance to master level status.  This document outlines the competencies expected of provisional, professional and master level teachers in each of the 9 performance standards for New Mexico teachers. 

Principals’ Readiness for Reform:  A Comprehensive Approach
Schiff, T.  (2002, February 29). Milken Family Foundation
While much recent discussion has focused on the importance of principals serving as instructional leaders, a survey conducted in the fall of 2000 by the Milken Family Foundation and the National Association of Secondary School Principals revealed that principals spend less than 30% of their work week addressing the curriculum or learning environment of their schools.  The majority of their time was spent on issues related to discipline, community relations and school management.  The Milken Family Foundation sees this as an opportunity to create leadership positions for teachers interested in remaining in the classroom, but hoping for more responsibility.  This article, originally printed in the January, 2002 issue of Principal Leadership, discusses how principals can benefit by sharing responsibilities with teacher-leaders through the Teacher Advancement Program.

Teacher Advancement Program
Milken Family Foundation
Recognizing that American schools were failing to attract and retain highly qualified teachers to their classrooms, the Milken Family Foundation developed a program known as the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) to increase teaching quality in schools.  The program outlines three career positions teachers advance through while staying in the classroom: career, mentor, and master teacher.  It restructures the school day to provide teachers time for professional learning and collaboration and rewards teachers with a performance-based compensation system.  The website describes the program in detail,  lists states with TAP schools, and provides answers to frequently asked questions about the program.

District Office
Design programs that attract qualified candidates to the principalship based on an understanding of the reasons that teachers choose to avoid school administration.

D.C. Program Promises Principals Freedom
Archer, J.  (2003, February 12). Edweek.
One of the concerns that existing principals often voice about their positions is a lack of control over key areas of school decision-making.  This lack of control, combined with heightened accountability, has kept many teachers from pursuing a career as a principal.  This article from Education Week highlights a principal recruitment and training program initiated in 2003 in Washington, DC designed to lure highly qualified candidates into the principalship with the promise of increased control.  Teachers enrolled in the program would serve as assistant principals while undergoing training, and then go through a two-month apprenticeship, serving as a building’s principal.  If these new candidates can prove that they are able to positively impact student achievement, they will be given more direct control over their schools.

A Rural Strategy for Filling Principalships
Erickson, J.  (2001, November).  The School Administrator.
This article outlines the efforts of rural districts in Montana to recruit and support principal candidates from the teaching ranks.  Called the Montana Principal Internship Program, teachers with leadership potential are identified and then guided through a three-year process during which they serve as principals and earn a degree in school administration.

Beyond the Pipeline:  Getting the Principals We Need, Where They Are Needed Most
Mitgang, L. (2003, June). The Wallace Foundation.

While many districts are struggling to find qualified candidates to fill their principal vacancies, there is no shortage of professionals holding administrator certifications.  The problem lies in the fact that many potential candidates are either not interested in the vacancies where they are most needed or have decided not to pursue school leadership positions at all.  This brief explores the need for establishing a balanced set of policies for attracting leadership candidates and ensuring quality leadership for all schools.

Good Principals are the Key to Successful Schools: Six Strategies to Prepare more Good Principals
Bottoms, G., O’Neill, K., Fry, B., and Hill, D.  (2003).  Southern Regional Education Board
Based on the belief that good principals are the key to school success, SREB examined the administrator preparation process and identified six practices that increase the quality of principal candidates.  One of the strategies highlighted is moving accomplished teachers into school leadership positions.

NAESP Fact Sheet on the Principal Shortage
National Association of Elementary School Principals (2003).

This fact sheet from NAESP outlines the nature of the principal shortage.  The document addresses the following questions:  Is there a principal shortage, how long has there been a shortage, why aren’t there enough candidates for these vacancies, and what is being done to ensure that America’s schools will have strong leaders.

The Leadership Mismatch:  An Alternative View
Tallerico, M. and Tingley, S.  (2001, November). The School Administrator
While the vast majority of teachers in American schools are women, there are proportionally few in the ranks of the school administrator.  This article details five specific steps that can be taken to remove the barriers that often keep women from moving into school leadership positions.

District Office
Encourage teachers to take advantage of the North Carolina Teachers’ Academy and the Principal Fellows Program, which develop teacher leadership and fund scholarships for educators interested in pursuing a career in administration.

The North Carolina Principal Fellows Program
The North Carolina General Assembly funds two year scholarships for accomplished teachers interested in earning a degree in school administration.  This website describes the Principal Fellows Program; it includes a general overview, information about applying for the program, and answers to frequently asked questions.

The North Carolina Teacher Academy
Funded by the North Carolina General Assembly, the North Carolina Teacher Academy offers week-long professional development sessions throughout the summer months.  Several of these sessions focus on school leadership.  Teachers are provided with room and board, continuing education credits, and an honorarium of $100 per day for participating.

District Office
Encourage and provide support to teachers pursuing certification from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.

Virginia School Sees Board-Certified Teachers As Key to Turnaround
Archer, J.  (2001, May 30).Education Week.
This article describes how National Board Certified Teachers in one Virginia school are taking on leadership roles by providing professional training for their colleagues. The school aims to become a model of how National Board Certified Teachers can help an entire school improve student learning.

Beginning the Journey toward National Board Certification
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (2003, August 26).
This guide from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards describes the certificates, standards, and steps involved in the process of National Board Certification.

NBPTS:  Building better teachers
Starr, L.  (2004, April). Education World.
This Education World interview with Joseph A. Aguerrebere Jr., President of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, outlines the process of board certification, as well as the benefits for teachers and students.  It is a brief and informative look at the potential that board certification has for changing teaching and learning in America.

Supporting National Board Certification:  School Administrators
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
This article from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards introduces Board Certification to school administrators.  It describes incentives being offered to teachers pursuing Board Certification at the state and local level nationwide, the benefits that NBCT’s offer their districts, and action-steps that district level leaders can take to promote Board Certification.  Also included is a downloadable brochure entitled, “A Distinction that Matters:  What School Administrators Should Know about National Board Certification.”

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